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Showing posts from June, 2017

Sweat, Exercise, and Sports Drinks

Animals, including humans, generate heat, even at rest, due to their metabolic activity. Some of this heat is lost to the environment by radiation, convection, conduction,and in terrestrial animals the vaporization of water. Evaporation has a significant cooling effect because about 2.5 kJ of heat is given up for every gram (ml) of water lost

Glycogen storage disease

The glycogen storage diseases are a set of inherited disorders of glycogen metabolism, not all of which result in glycogen accumulation, as the name might suggest. The symptoms of the glycogen storage diseases vary, depending on whether the affected tissue is liver or muscle or both. In general, the disorders that affect the liver cause hypoglycemia (too little glucose in the blood) and an enlarged liver. Glycogen storage diseases that affect primarily muscle are characterized by muscle weakness and cramps. The incidence of glycogen storage diseases is estimated to be as high as 1 in 20,000 births, although some disorders are not apparent until adulthood.

Fats,Diet, and Heart Disease

Years of study have established a connection between elevated LDL levels and atherosclerosis this indicates that certain diets contribute to the formation of fatty deposits that clog arteries and cause cardiovascular disease.

Considerable research has been devoted to showing how dietary lipids influence serum lipid levels. For example, early studies showed that diets rich in saturated fats increased blood cholesterol (that is, LDL), whereas diets in which unsaturated vegetable oils replaced the saturated fats had the opposite effect. These and other findings led to recommendations that individuals at risk for atherosclerosis avoid butter, which is rich in saturated fat as well as cholesterol, and instead use margarine, which is prepared from cholesterol free vegetable oils.